SECTION I. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT
OF HUMAN CAPITAL
“VEIVODE AND THE AUTHORITY OF THE REZAN COUNTRIES”: RYAZAN UNDER MANAGEMENT OF PROKOPY LYAPUNOV
Abstract. During the period of the Time of Troubles, a special model of local governance developed in Ryazan’ district (uezd). Its main characteristic was the dominance of the voyevoda (governer) Prokopy Lyapunov. The reason for the emergence of such a model was the weakness of the central government in the confrontation with False Dmitry II: the government of Vasily Shuisky did not have the resources to control the county and, being interested in the loyalty and services of the local elite, was compelled to encourage its actions. The main features of the “regime” prevailing in Ryazan Uyezd were militarized life, systematic exploitation of the local posad population, and illegal requisitions. In his actions, Lyapunov relied on loyal persons from among the Ryazan nobles and children of the boyars, as well as on a circle of relatives. Based on the sources of the first third of the seventeenth century, the author shows that the establishment of such a regime led to the destabilization of relations within the local elite and led to a series of conflicts, as a result of which many representatives of the Ryazan noble families were expelled from the Ryazan Territory for a long time.
PROMOTION IN ROMANIA IN THE YEARS OF NEUTRALITY (1914-1916)
Abstract. The article is devoted to propaganda in Romania during the period of neutrality (1914-1916). The work on the basis of new sources describes the policy in the field of propaganda, its influence on the formation of public opinion. The work touched on the main aspects of the propaganda carried out by the missions and other diplomatic agents in Romania, as well as its results and impact on the Romanian public. The revealed sources make it possible to illuminate the issue of propaganda in a single neutral state that has not been sufficiently studied in domestic and foreign history. The article emphasized the main means of propaganda during the First World War – print media. Based on the documents studied and the reports of Russian diplomats and military agents, it was concluded that since the beginning of the First World War, Romania began to carry out intensive propaganda by financing newspaper publishers and reprinting articles with official reports from the war fronts. However, in the end, the main reasons for Romania’s entry into the war were not the propaganda efforts of diplomatic missions, but the events on the fronts of the First World War, which had a decisive influence on the Romanian public and forced the Romanian leadership to speak on the side of the Entente.
A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL ORPHANHOOD IN RUSSIA: ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS
Abstract. The article explores the phenomenon of social orphanhood in various historical periods of the development of Russia. The application of the method of retrospective analysis allows us to trace the causes of the phenomenon of social orphanage, its transformation, to consider various forms of social assistance to children – social orphans, to conclude that the process of deinstitutionalization of social orphanage is growing. It also substantiates the need for further theoretical and applied understanding of the phenomenon of social orphanhood.
GUARD LIEUTENANT GENERAL IVAN NIKITOVICH RUSSIYANOV-LEGENDARY COMMANDER OF THE 1ST GUARDS
Abstract. The article describes the heroism and courage of Soviet soldiers and officers of the 100th rifle – 1st guards-1st guards mechanized corps. Of particular importance was the fact that the division (corps) from the first to the last victorious day of the war was commanded by General I.N. Russiyanov – an unprecedented case. It is with I.N. Russiyanov, the division’s soldiers met the enemy near Minsk and held the defenses for 3 days, repelling the attacks of an enemy superior in forces and weapons, with I.N. Russiyanovym out of the environment.
Under the command of General I. N. Russiyanov, the division took part in the legendary battle of Yelnya in August 1941. Then four Soviet divisions, including the 100th rifle General I.N. Russiyanova, inflicted the first major defeat on the superior forces of the German troops. The victory of the Soviet troops at Yelnya was the birthday of the Soviet guard. On September 18, 1941, by Order No. 308 of the people’s Commissar of defense of the USSR I.V. Stalin, the 100th rifle division was transformed into the 1st guards rifle division.
In the future, soldiers-guards under the command of General I.N. Russiyanov smashed the enemy during the counteroffensive near Moscow, participated in the liberation of Donbass and Zaporozhye, took Budapest and Vienna, and finally put an end to the war in the foothills of the Alps.
MISSION PREPARATION N.P. IGNATIEV TO CHINA IN 1859 – 1860
Abstract. This article discusses the preparation of the mission of N.P. Ignatieff to China in 1859–1860 The author is based on both published and archival sources from the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire (AFPRE) and the State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF), some of which are first introduced into the scientific circulation. Much attention is paid to the historical context that determined the sending of the next embassy to China. This made it possible to explain the dual military-diplomatic nature of Ignatiev’s mission and the large volume of tasks assigned to it. The mechanism of adoption by the Russian government of foreign policy decisions regarding the Far Eastern region is examined in detail, the instructions received by Ignatiev from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the War Ministry are almost completely given. According to the results of the study, it seems possible to conclude that the mission of N.P. Ignatiev to China was a typical phenomenon of Russian foreign policy of the 1850s – 1860s in relation to the countries of the East. The combination of military and diplomatic functions in the hands of one person made it possible to act simultaneously by peaceful and forceful methods. Relations with China have traditionally been unpredictable and in the indicated period they were not a foreign policy priority. This explains the departure of Ignatiev to Beijing during the period of instability without clear instructions.
SECTION II. COMPLEX COGNITION OF THE MODERN PERSON AND SOCIETY
Goncharov V.V., Maltseva O.L.
ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF MACHINE TRANSFER BASED ON THE NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY
Abstract. The main aspects of machine translation, the advantages and disadvantages of machine translation systems are considered, the possibility of improving the quality of translation based on neural network technology, taking into account the cost of systems and an analytical assessment of translation error, is substantiated.
MAKING SENSE OF THE CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL VALUES AND MEANINGS THROUGH THE CONTEXT OF CULTUROLOGY
Abstract. Due to accelerated change and increasing uncertainty in today’s civilization, the question of values and meanings of contemporary education (both general and professional) becomes of particular importance. It is suggested to consider these educational values and meanings in the context of culturology. It is taken for a given that the educational values and meanings closely rely on the values and meanings relevant for the contemporary civilization as a whole. These latter ones are considered as having two «layers», basic and actual. The basic layer corresponds to the results of a long-term historical evolution; and the actual one, to the characteristics of short-term (ie those of XX and XXI centuries) changes. The first one comes to a gradually increasing humanization; and the second one, to a transition from the values of the survival to the values of the self-expression. Their combination and concordance permit to formulate the state of affairs for the modern civilization values, that is to say, also for their product, today’s educational values and meanings. These may be summarized as a triple assertion of educational universality, variability, and continuity, which all are indispensable for the individual’s uniqueness development. In conclusion, a preliminary description of guidelines for values and meanings suitable for some aspects of education (eg civic, aesthetic, or moral) is proposed.
Guzeev M.S., Grigoryev S.M.
PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION IN THE SYSTEM OF GENERAL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA: A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS
Abstract. The article considers the main milestones in the development of the theory on the problem of the integration of education and attempts to introduce it into school practice in different years. It is noted that intersubject integration allows us to establish links not only between close subjects, but also between the fundamental areas of modern science – natural and humanitarian. This aspect is laid down in the content of training by creating appropriate elective courses, conducting binary and integrated lessons, students completing training projects, etc. The analysis of the problem showed that the basic subject can be studied as an integrated course or as a course built on the modular principle, where each module implements the content of the corresponding education component defined by the standard. The key point is interdisciplinary integration, in particular, the creation of comparative courses, the presence of a cultural component in the content of natural objects.
GLOBALIZATION: SOFTEN OR TURN AGAIN? ANTI-GLOBALISM AND ALTERGLOBALISM AS FORMS OF MANIFESTATION OF AN OPPOSITION OF NEOLIBERAL GLOBALIZATION
Abstract. The author of the article offers an analysis of the response to the process of globalization of the world economy in its neoliberal version which has brought about massive disillusionment with the all-mighty invisible hand of the market. Neoliberal globalization has become a threat to economic and social stability of weaker economies. Discontent with neoliberal globalization today manifests itself in both massive antiglobalist movement as well as in a joint effort to find an alternative to the neoliberal globalization, to moderate it, make it more socially oriented and inclusive, which the author terms as alternative globalism (alterglobalism).
FEATURES OF BEHAVIOR IN SOCIAL NETWORKS IN YOUTH: A SEARCH RESEARCH (ON THE EXAMPLE OF SOCIAL NETWORK “VKONTAKT”)
Abstract. The work raises the currently relevant problem of Internet addiction and excessive immersion of young people in virtual space. The results of a research study on the behavior of young people in a cyber environment are presented. We examined 30 people aged 18 to 25 years who have accounts on social networks and regularly use them. Each respondent was asked to complete the K. Addiction Test (Internet Addiction Test, IAT), adapted by V.A. Loskutovoy (Drilling), and the author’s questionnaire, which includes 103 points and devoted to the study of various socio-demographic characteristics and behavior in the electronic space (number of accounts, profile fullness, amount of time spent on the Internet, chatting with other users, personal communication preferences respondents, convenient communication formats, etc.). At the same time, an attempt was made to detect the effect of excessive involvement in social networks on real contacts of respondents and interpersonal relationships. Based on data processing, a number of conclusions and generalizations are made regarding the characteristics of cyber behavior. It also talks about the prospects of both a real exploratory study, and the study of this scientific area of research.
Nesterova A.A., Levin L.M.
FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC RESEARCHES OF INTERNET DEPENDENCE AND CONNECTIONS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS IN YOUTH
Abstract. The article considers the problem of Internet addiction and excessive immersion in social networks and virtual space. The phenomenon of involvement in cyberspace is becoming more widespread, affecting various aspects of the person and human life, which requires additional scientific study and understanding. The issues of determining and organizing healthy and problematic use of the Internet, as well as the features of differentiating these concepts are discussed. The differences between real and virtual communication, the features of communication in each of them are analyzed. The paper provides a literary review of modern domestic and foreign studies of the phenomena and phenomena discussed. The article analyzes the concepts of Internet addiction (C. Young, K. Webley, K.W. Beard, E.M. Wolf, and others). The authors give a generalized description of the criteria for Internet addiction identified by various scientists, as well as the main methods for identifying this addiction. Researchers also say the prospects for research on this topic. In the future, the authors will conduct their own empirical study on the relationship of Internet addiction with the subjective level of loneliness and the characteristics of interpersonal relationships among young people, based on the theoretical and methodological principles described in this article.
Tuarmensky V.V., Baranovsky A.V., Lyashchuk Yu.O., Salnikova I.V., Shibarshina O.YU.
FROM SCIENCE CITY TO TECHNOPOLIS: HISTORY OF TRANSFORMATION
Abstract. The relevance of the article is due to the need to find the optimal model of the domestic technopolis and maximize the efforts of the scientific community to study and discuss the most successful options for implementing these models. The aim of the article was an attempt to expound and analyze the domestic experience in implementing the program for the development of science cities and giving them the features inherent in Western technopolises. The subject of the work was fixing the main points in the process of transformation of science cities. The authors consider the emergence of the term “science city”, a change in approaches to the study of Russian cities of science and a modern official interpretation of this phenomenon. The article fixes the place and role of the science city at various stages of the existence of Soviet science. It is proposed to classify domestic cities of science by profile, size and specialization. The authors, considering the profiles of science cities with official status, highlight a clearly defined educational component that is part of their structure. The causes of the systemic crisis of the model of the Soviet science city and the search for ways out of it in the late 80s – early 90s are described. The choice of the model of the western technopolis for the domestic science city is substantiated. The article discusses the complex process of transition of post-Soviet science cities as territorial centers of a research profile focused on the military-industrial complex to a new format of existence, through the introduction of innovative technology park forms in this structure. As a result of the analysis, the authors described the most significant domestic science cities. Particular attention is paid to the features of the emergence and promising directions of the development of technopark structures in Russia. The research results can be applied to actualize the process of introducing the results of scientific developments into industrial production within the framework of a modern science city.
Fasolya A.A., Maltseva O.L.
INTENSIFICATION OF THE PROCESS OF TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE THROUGH MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES
Abstract. The features of teaching a foreign language in a non-linguistic university using innovative technologies are considered. Particular attention is paid to the use of media technologies. The article presents the main ways to intensify students’ independent work and optimize classroom work through modern technical training aids. The features of the preparation and conduct of practical exercises using information and communication technologies are described, the advantages of their application are described. The author considers the possibilities of using Internet resources in practical classes in a foreign language, as well as the basic principles of material selection through the World Wide Web. A detailed analysis of the use of media technologies at various stages of teaching a foreign language is carried out: when explaining new material, primary consolidation of knowledge, for their actualization, generalization and systematization of the studied. Features of the use of media technologies in teaching existing types of speech activity are described. The stages of work in the classroom using information and communication technologies are presented, their sequence is determined. Particular attention is paid to the advantages of using media technologies in teaching reading and listening. A review of periodical on-line publications in English and German is presented, the use of which is advisable, from the point of view of the author, in practical classes in a foreign language for working with texts.
Sokolov D.I., Kotov A.A., Grigoryev S.M.
METHODOLOGICAL APPARATUS FOR THE USE OF THE AGGREGATED APPROACH IN MONITORING THE SECURITY STATUS OF MILITARY SERVICE IN THE ARMED FORCES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Abstract. One of the directions for improving the security of military service provides for annual monitoring of the security status of military service and the conditions for military personnel to carry out professional service activities in the Armed Forces. The main task of monitoring the security of military service in the RF Armed Forces should be a quantitative and qualitative description of the processes taking place in the security sphere. The methodological apparatus of the aggregated approach to monitoring the state of military service security based on the theory of fuzzy sets, which is considered in the article, is aimed at supporting the concept of professional risk management, which is currently undergoing transition, involves changing priorities, shifting emphasis from accident response measures “post factum” in the framework of the traditional system for preventive measures, ie health risk management.
SECTION III. EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND SELF-REALIZATIONOF THE SUBJECT OF LABOR AND LIFE STRATEGY
Berezina T.N., Buzanov K.E., Fatianov G.V.
POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY OF VIRTUALITY AS A DIRECTION FOR OPTIMIZING THE FUNCTIONAL STATES OF A HUMAN OPERATOR
Abstract. The purpose of the study is the development of a positive psychology of virtuality and the study of its capabilities for optimizing the functional states of a human operator. This work focuses on the search for methods of correcting the state of fatigue and increasing the level of wakefulness of a human operator. Three series of studies were conducted using psychophysiological and psychological diagnostic methods. In the first series, the effect of virtual movement on extreme slides on the functioning of the cardiovascular system was studied. It was shown that the reaction of the body to virtual slides is similar to the reaction to the real extreme: a person’s blood pressure increased, his pulse increased, and this state persisted after the immersion. In the second series, we studied the influence of fabulous, non-extreme stories on the emotional sphere. It has been shown that positive fabulous virtual videos enhance positive emotions, excitingly affect a person. In the third series, a longitudinal experiment was performed on the effect of the combined plot (extreme + meditative) on the state of fatigue. It was shown that watching an exciting movie first, and then relaxing, reduces fatigue and increases the state of wakefulness.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE HUMAN FACTOR QUALIFICATION PROGRAM FOR AIRCRAFT ENGINEERS
Abstract. The article substantiates the relevance of the Human Factor program for aviation engineers in the development of new technology. Characteristic examples of aircraft accidents due to erroneous actions of engineering personnel are given. A variant of the thematic plan of the discipline is proposed, taking into account the psychological characteristics of retraining on highly automated aircraft.
Drovaleva L.S., Trifonova K.V., Semenov A.V.
TASKS AS A MEANS FOR TRAINING FUTURE LAWYERS
Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the use of such an active learning tool as a task in the educational process. The role of tasks in professional legal education, the features of the plot task are revealed. Various approaches to the classification of tasks are considered: depending on didactic goals, on teaching role. Particular attention is paid to tasks that contribute to a better understanding of the theory. The question of the main stages of work on the problem is discussed. The authors state that one of the goals of the work on the task is the acquisition by students of skills in establishing certain links between data and those sought, in highlighting significant legal facts. Recommendations are given on the use of teaching methods for students to solve problems. The influence of tasks, teaching methods on the effectiveness of students studying specific disciplines is analyzed. As examples from practice, fragments of scenarios of classes in civil law, judicial statistics, and political science are given.
CHANGES IN COMPONENTS OF TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY
UNDER CONDITIONS OF USE OF NEW ORGANIZATIONAL FORM OF TRAINING
Abstract. This article discusses the changes in the components of the professional activity of a new type of teacher in the context of using new innovative organizational forms. It is emphasized that a developing information and educational environment will work if and only if a new type of teacher methodically justifies a fundamentally new educational process based on the use of information and communication technology. A new type of teacher plans educational results at the same time and plans the informational and educational environment of a particular educational institution to achieve these educational results, and this has never been taught to him. To solve this problem, that is, training a new type of teacher to use innovative forms in the educational process in a comprehensive school, it is proposed to prepare the teacher himself through the use of these organizational forms of training in the educational process of the university. As part of this preparation, the work analyzes such components of the teacher’s professional activity as a new type, in terms of using non-traditional organizational forms of training based on ICT tools, such as: Gnostic, design, constructive, organizational, communicative, expert. That is, they analyze how the content of the professional activity of a teacher of a new type has changed according to these distinguished components in order to further argue on the basis of this analysis the principles and approaches of the content of the methodological system for preparing a teacher of a new type.
Legkonogikh A.N., Ryzhkin N.V., Popova S.L., Sorochkina O.Yu., Smirnova S.B.
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING OF CHILDREN USING INFORMATION-COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EDUCATION
Abstract. The purpose of the author’s research is based on the relevance of the use of information and computer technologies in the educational process, from pre-school to higher professional education, which is confirmed not only by Federal standards and educational programs, but also by the practical implementation of innovations at different levels of education. It seems important to highlight the main context of scientific research – this is the conduct of psychological testing of students at different levels of education through the introduction of information and computer technologies. This process has been carried out in Russian education for the last decades, but has not yet found a form that is consistent and adapted to a single standard. Empirically and with the help of the author’s structure of psychological testing, reference points are identified for the development of adapted questions for different educational levels in order to identify important criteria for the behavior of the student and the teacher, teaching criteria, choice of disciplines, areas of educational research, tools and teaching technologies. The algorithm of test questions, cases, focus groups was discussed among graduate students, faculty of the Department of Social Work of the Don State Technical University, in the framework of career guidance, in addition, among visitors and participants of the XIX South Russian Interregional Scientific and Practical Conference -exhibitions “Information Technologies in Education – 2019” (ITO-Rostov-2019).
Kleptsova E.Yu., Makshantseva L.V., Ivantsov O.V.
ATTITUDES TO STRESS OF SERVICE STAFF
Abstract. The modern world is characterized by instability, unpredictability, uncertainty of geopolitical, sociopolitical, economic, social phenomena. A particular risk of exposure to these phenomena is made up of employees of the service sector, as they serve the daily significant flow of people.
The interrelation of stress tolerance of employees of the service sector with professional activity, mental stability and coping strategy of problem situations and emotional attitude to work is shown. It is shown that a high level of stress tolerance of service sector employees is characterized by a pronounced interest and a positive attitude to work, a desire to achieve success, the implementation of active positive strategies to deal with stress at work, emotional calm or a positive background mood, general job satisfaction, understanding and support of loved ones. The low level of stress tolerance among service workers is due to dissatisfaction with their work and life, the prevalence of avoidance motivation over achievement achievement, emotional instability, impulsivity, internal disagreement, lack of understanding of loved ones, lack of support.
Ovchinnikova Yu. E.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF DECISION-MAKING INVESTMENT DECISION
Abstract. The article presents an analysis of the influence of various psychological factors on the adoption of investment decisions. As the most important factors, we have identified: the phenomenon of limited rationality, cognitive prejudices (heuristics), personal characteristics, emotions and moods. As a result of theoretical analysis, we revealed the relationship of the identified psychological factors, as well as the high influence of the emotional component in the process of making an investment decision. Emotions affect how investors value an investment product and decide whether to buy or sell securities. At the same time, the social orientation of the individual is also important. In our empirical study, we decided to test the influence of various factors on the adoption of investment decisions, while emphasizing the ethical component. We suggested that respondents will have different attitudes to acquiring shares in a regular and socially responsible fund or company. It was shown that personality traits influence investor preferences. Introverts and people with high practicality prefer to make investments with a minimum degree of risk. Investing in the consumption of goods and services is preferred by impulsive people. Evaluation of the ethics of the company affects the investment decision. There are three types of investor reactions: an ethical attitude reinforces the risk shift and focus on profit; installation on ethical behavior reduces the shift in risk and focus on profit; setting ethical behavior does not affect the shift in risk. The social responsibility of an individual, namely, internal social responsibility, affects the willingness to invest in an enterprise whose activity is considered ethical and forms an optimistic attitude towards a possible result.