SECTION I. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL
EMPEROR NIKOLAI II. THE MASTER OF THE RUSSIAN LAND
Abstract. The article considers the main stages of life and activity of Emperor Nikolai II, his contribution to the formation and development of the Russian Empire at the turn of the 19th – 20th centuries. Various assessments of Nikolai II personality are presented. The bias of the distortion of Nikolai II activities is determined, conditioned by the desire to substantiate the legitimacy of the February and October revolutions of 1917, and also the leveling of the murder of the royal family in July 1918. The main stages of the formation of his personality as a statesman of Russia, preparation for accession to the throne are described. The content and results of the most significant social and economic transformations of the initial stage of his activity are revealed. The facts of the dynamic development of industrial and agricultural production in Russia are cited, which resulted from the reforming activities of Emperor Nikolai II. The strengthening of Russia’s international position was also the result of Nikolai’s initiatives aimed at ensuring international security and limiting the use of striking assets in the course of the war. It was the initiatives of Nikolai II in this area
that laid the foundations of modern international humanitarian law. The reasons for the beginning of the Russo-Japanese war and the unsuccessful completion of Russia are determined, due in large part to the escalation of domestic political tension in the country and directly to the activities of the liberal public and revolutionary groups. The development of crisis revolutionary processes in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, including the events of January 9, 1905, is analyzed. Technologies for the realization of this action and its significance for further escalating social and political tensions in Russia are determined.
Keywords: Nicholai II, Russia, The Emperor, Russian-Japanese war, the Khodynka disaster, “bloody Sunday”, the first Russian revolution.
NIKOLAI II. THERE IS NO SUCH SACRIFICE WHICH THE EMPEROR WOULD NOT MAKE TO SAVE RUSSIA
Abstract. The main directions of the activity of the Emperor Nikolai II in the period of the greatest social and political cataclysms of the beginning of the 20th century are considered in the article: the revolution in 1905-1907, the First World War and the February revolution of 1917. Protest actions in Russia in early 1905, under the influence of revolutionary propaganda, gained a mass character. The main direction of Nikolai II activity under these conditions was the stabilization of the domestic political situation in the country on the principle of “first calm and then reforms.” In 1906, the State Duma, established by the Tsar Manifesto, began to operate. Nevertheless, the politicized nature of the first and the second members of the State Duma did not allow the full implementation of the reform program of Nikolai II. It was only within the framework of the Third Duma that it was possible to establish a government with deputies of the State Duma. Since that period (1907), Russia has again begun to develop dynamically, taking the leading positions in the world in terms of its main indicators of social and economic development. The First World War was a key event that predetermined the further development of the political situation in Russia. Contrary to prevailing stereotypes, this war was not losing for Russia. Hard was only the first stage – 1914 – the first half of 1915. Since the second half of 1915, military operations at the front have been successful for Russia. The most important factors that conditioned the February revolution of 1917 were the destructive activity of the deputies of the State Duma, as well as the conspiracy of higher generals, which prevented Nikolai II from taking the necessary measures to curb the armed insurrection in Petrograd. The destructive activity of these political groups also became the reason for the forced abdication of Nikolai II from the throne.
Keywords: Nikolai II, the first Russian revolution, the socialist-revolutionary and anarchist terror, the socio-economic development of Russia, the First World War, the February revolution of 1917, the abdication of Nikolai II.
STUDY OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN BRAZIL: HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT AND TOPICAL PROBLEMS
Abstract. In view of the strengthened in recent years of trade, economic and cultural relations between Russia and Brazil, studies on the interaction of the two countries are becoming particularly relevant. The purpose of this article is to trace the trajectory of the development of the Brazilian school of Russian studies from the time of the first cultural ties between the two countries to the present time, and to analyze the current state of research in this field. To do this, we analyzed the history of the publication of translations of Russian authors in Brazil. Acquaintance of Brazilian readers with Russian literature took place more than one and a half centuries ago, when at the end of the 19th century translations of world famous Russian classics were found in the country. The first works brought from Europe in English, French and other languages, were translated into Portuguese again, which could not but affect the quality of the translated text. In the fifties of the last century, the first direct translations into the Portuguese language of prose works by Pushkin, Dostoevsky, and others appeared. Russian studies, as a field of scientific knowledge, originated in Brazil in the 1960s, and the study of the Russian language and literature was closely related with the development of a local translation school. It was at that time that the works of Russian authors were systematically translated directly from the Russian language, and the first department of Russian philology in the country, at the University of São Paulo (USP), was found. Approximately from the late 90s of the last century to the present time, a new surge of interest in Russian literature has been observed in Brazil: the number of published texts is growing every year, their range is widening, and a significant number of academic studies in the field of Russian literature and culture are being conducted. Analyzed sources allow us to conclude that over the past few decades, due to the consolidation of the Brazilian school of Russian studies and the emergence of a new pleiad of Russian-language translators, the quality of artistic translations has also significantly improved. In addition, the rapprochement between countries, the strengthening of cultural and economic ties has also significantly increased the interest of the Brazilian public to Russia and to Russian literature in particular.
Keywords: Brazil, Portuguese, Russian studies Abroad, Boris Schnaiderman, Russian literature, Translation.
SECTION II. PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL BASES OF COMPLEX COGNITION OF THE MODERN PERSON AND SOCIETY
NEEDS OF INTERPERSONAL INTERACTION OF YOUNG AND ELDERLY PEOPLE IN RUSSIAN AND CHINESE CULTURE (ON THE BASIS OF THE RESEARCH ON THE SCHUTZ’ METHOD)
Abstract. Questions of mutual understanding between generations have worried humanity since ancient times. People grow in different socio-economic, political, historical, cultural conditions and because of this they are more difficult to understand each other. Also, one should not underestimate the age-related crises and the desire of young people to separate from older generations, opposition. In the present paper, differences in expectations of interaction between Russians and Chinese (young and older people) are considered. This article is based on the materials of the research conducted on the topic: “Needs of interpersonal interaction between young and elderly people in Russian and Chinese culture (based on Schutz’ research)”. The obtained empirical data reflect the key features of mutual understanding and interaction between generations of Russians and Chinese. The article examines typical problems in mutual understanding between generations in Russia and China, analyzes the needs of interpersonal interaction of young and elderly people in Russian and Chinese culture.
Keywords: generation, relationships between generations, cultural values, traditions, mutual understanding, society, managers and employees.
SYSTEM-DYNAMIC APPROACH TO SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF MIGRANTS
Abstract. The ppaper contains the main provisions of the author’s system-dynamic concept of socio-psychological adaptation of migrants in the host multicultural society. As an object of research, the personality emerged as a subject of socio-psychological adaptation in the host multicultural society. The subject of the study: the system of socio-psychological adaptation of the migrant in the host multicultural society. The aim of the study was to develop a socio-psychological concept of migrant adaptation and empirical verification. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research is based on the principles: determinism, system, development and activity; the unity of consciousness and activity, the unity of the internal and external plan of activity; provisions on the individual, mental activity, the systemic nature of its development. The author considers sociopsychological adaptation as a non-linear process: from the formation of migration intentions, to actual entry into the adaptation environment, the choice of type of residence, the formation of a subjective damping environment, the choice of behavior strategy and transition to a post-adjustment period. Socio-psychological adaptation is carried out through certain ways of conscious or unconscious entry of the individual into social role relationships and relationships, through the acquisition of values, actions, social experience, social norms and rules by the individual. The conducted research contributes to the development of interdisciplinary theoretical knowledge on the problems of adaptation of migrants, expands the boundaries of the problem field and complements the methodology of ethnopsychology and social psychology of the individual. The results of the study, which uncover new adaptation mechanisms for migrants (idealization, imitation and psychic identification, selective adaptation, social identification, rationalization and compensation, sublimation and intellectualization) and the psychological conditions for mutual adaptation of migrants and the host population (objective and subjective adaptation criteria) serve as the basis for resolving theoretical problems of psychological means of personal adaptation in conditions of a host multicultural society. The results of the research are the basis for the design of a new direction of social psychology aimed at studying the adaptation of the individual in a multicultural environment, and combining the efforts of researchers, practitioners to solve the problems of migrants, their adaptation, the development of effective ethno-cultural, migration policies and strategies for their implementation.
Keywords: social and psychological adaptation, migrants, the host society.
Safronov A.S., Medvedev D.A.
ACMEOGENESIS OF THE MENTAL WORLD OF WORKERS OF RAILWAY TRANSPOR
Abstract. The article is devoted to the definition of the peculiarities of development of the mental world of railway transport workers. The key role of railway transport in the development of the economy of the Russian Federation and the special significance of the human factor in enhancing the efficiency of the “Russian Railways” holding determines the need to organize psychological support for the activities of this organization. Psychological support of professional activity is traditionally aimed at increasing its effectiveness through improving the socio-psychological climate in labor collectives and the optimal placement of staff. In modern conditions, the use of the potential of acmeology as a branch of developmental psychology becomes relevant for the psychological support of professional activity. In the context of the problem under consideration, it is promising to resort to the concept of “acmeogenesis”, which has a serious conceptual and integrating potential. Acmeogenesis is defined by the authors as the ontogenetic unity of personal and professional development of a person on the way to achieving the level of “acme” – the highest level of development of man as a subject. The basis of acmeogenesis is the process of development of the mental world of man – the psychological formation that fixes results of reflecting the surrounding reality and himself. The article presents materials of empirical research revealing the structure of the mental world of railway transport workers at the age of early and middle adulthood and connection of this mental education with the characteristics of their personality, professionally important qualities and the success of professional activity. The unity of professional and personal components is observed in the structure of the mental world of railway transport workers at the age of early and middle adulthood, which confirms the author’s hypothesis that the development of the corresponding psychological education is the basis for achieving the level of “acme”. Knowledge of the peculiarities of the development of the mental world of railway workers is a necessary condition for the psychological support of optimal acmeogenesis of representatives of this professional group.
Keywords: acmeogenesis, mental world, railway transport workers, early adulthood, average adulthood, psychosemantics.
ZOOMORPHISM IN STOCK MARKET VOCABULARY
Abstract. Amid rapid development of disruptive technologies and upstick in interaction on regional and global levels it is of great interest to look into alien vocabulary in different spheres typical of both terminology and less formal expressions such as jargonisms. The article analyses jargonisms of animal origin used in the stock segment to name the participants in stock trade and their strategies as well as situation on the stock market as a whole. The author outlines that apart from well-known lexical units stating the types of stock exchange players such as “bulls” and “bears” there are other words used on the stock market: “stags”, “sheep”, “pigs”, “turkeys”, “wolves” and even “lemming” which are attributable to the size and behavior pattern of the animal taken as a basis. The examples of stock strategies with animal component indicated in the article and accompanied by explanation of their main point give evidence of the need for deep sector-specific knowledge as the Russian language does not always have the corresponding analogy. Framing of so called zoomorphisms shows that their major part on the stock market refers to the frame “Representatives of the animal world”, still there are jargonisms under the frame “Parts of animals” bodies”, “Animals” actions”, “Treatment of animals”, “Animals” behaviour”. The author emphasizes that a range of the considered zoonyms is made up by means of acronyms which is not common for the Russian language. The research proves that zoomorphisms make the language for specific purposes more impressional and reflect the unique features of national economic reality, mainly representing calque from English with only a minor part of Russian words and phraseological units.
Keywords: zoomorphism, zoonym, stock vocabulary, jargon.
Drovaleva L.S., Dragilev E.V., Dragileva L.L.
CONTINUITY IN STUDYING THE DISCIPLINE OF THE INFORMATION CYCLE BY FUTURE LAWYERS
Abstract. The article is devoted to the questions connected with providing of continuity of the maintenance of educational disciplines of an information cycle on an example of their studying in educational organizations of a legal profile. A number of methods are discussed that make it possible to realize continuity relations between these disciplines in the educational process. Based on the analysis of normative and methodological literature, the main trends in the continuity of the content of such disciplines are highlighted in accordance with the competencies formed. Among them, the authors include the formation of ideas about the role of information and the processes associated with it in the surrounding world; formation of knowledge and skills in the search, analysis and evaluation of information necessary for the formulation and solution of professional tasks; formation of knowledge about methods of data storage and processing, and databases, as well as the formation of skills to work with databases and computer data representation (analysis) tools; the ability to work with information in global networks; skills of orientation in conditions of changes in the regulatory framework. Examples of tasks allowing to evaluate the formation of information competencies are given. Recommendations are given for optimizing the content of disciplines, which ensure an increase in the effectiveness of teaching.
Keywords: Disciplines of information cycle, competences of information orientation, continuity in the content of education.
Karasev V.A., Grigor’ev S.M., Makarov D.V., Gaevoi D.V., Shirokov D.A.
ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF QUALITY SYSTEM OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION
Abstract. Analysis of existing problems in the management of educational institutions indicates the need to find additional measures to improve the effectiveness of the management system in these organizations and improve the quality management mechanisms for providing educational services and the institution as a whole. The implementation of the goals and objectives facing the educational institution can be successfully achieved through the formation of an effective management system, and the problems of improving quality through the functioning of the quality management system. In the quality management system of an educational institution, an important role is assigned to the quality of its internal environment, one of the components of which is the organizational structure. In turn, the quality of the environment and the processes occurring in it depends on the level of motivation of the subjects of educational activity, i.e. teaching staff and the students themselves. Creation of the motivational environment of an educational institution means the saturation of its educational space and the educational process itself with the necessary motivating factors. The presented results can be used in the improvement of coordination mechanisms of the management systems of educational institutions.
Keywords: quality management system, quality of educational environment, educational institution, educational environment, organizational structure, operational core, professional bureaucracy.
Lyamzin M.A., Sapronov V.A.
ON THE PROBLEM OF CLASSIFICATION OF MODERN TRAINING TOOLS
Abstract. The article is devoted to the classification of modern teaching tools used in the educational process of the higher school. It is addressed to pedagogical staff of higher educational institutions (HEIs), which carries out training of specialists in the field of management. The purpose of this work is to clarify the content of the concept of “teaching tools”, to analyze the classifications of teaching aids existing in pedagogy of higher school, to develop such a classification option, which takes into account the features of the teaching tools used in teaching technical subjects. The article analyzes classifications of teaching tools published by domestic and foreign pedagogue scholars in 1993-2013, summarizes the theoretical positions accumulated in the didactics of higher school, integrates the teaching tools similar in purpose and function, is supplemented by new ones, and the author’s version of the classification of didactic means is presented. With the help of the method of expert assessments, the so-called “basic” training tools are identified, which are a priority during the training sessions on technical subjects, and “auxiliary” teaching tools that perform the functions of accompanying the learning process and assessing its efficiency. The proposed version of the classification of teaching tools will be most effective in the training of “Y” and “Z” generations of students, who, because of the peculiarities of perception and comprehension of educational information, are characterized as “visuals”, and will be most adequate in teaching technical subjects.
Keywords: classification, means of training, technical subjects, verbal means, visual aids, audiovisual materials, didactic materials, technical means of training, material means of support of educational process.
SECTION III. THE PROBLEM OF EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND FULFILLMENT OF THE SUBJECT OF WORK AND LIFE STRATEGIES
Romanenko N.M., Bykadorova T.Yu.
FORMATION OF THE PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY STUDENTS BY MEANS OF FRENCH LANGUAGE IN EXPERIMENTAL PRACTICE OF MGIMO (UNIVERSITY)
Abstract. The authors note that in the higher educational institution, there is a qualitative leap in the professional development of the future specialists, the formation of their professional identity in the context of interdisciplinary interaction, in which a foreign language acts as a necessary and indispensable component. As a result of mastering the language of the profession, graduates actively use foreign languages to solve professional issues (they conduct dialogue, correspondence and negotiations in a foreign language). Mastering in full the language of the profession contributes to the development of students’ cognitive interest in future professional activity, awareness of its characteristics, which generally increases the effectiveness of performing professional tasks, and also has a positive impact on the effectiveness of vocational training and further successful professional activity. In the article, the authors made an attempt to test experimentally the hypothetical positions of the process of forming the professional identity of international economists.
Keywords: international economy students, professional identity, experiment, interdisciplinarity, interaction, criterion, French, comparative analysis, dynamics, questioning, survey, observation, conversation, content analysis, focus group, department of international economic relations.
PROFESSIONAL SELF-REALIZATION OF WOMEN IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE MILITARY-PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENT
Abstract. This article considers gender aspects of professional self-realization of female militaries from the point of view of the process of their adaptation to the military-professional environment, which has a certain socio-cultural specifics. Military-professional space in this article is interpreted as a set of professional-environmental characteristics and objects of professional responsibility of female militaries, within the framework of which their functional and service activities are carried out. The author, analyzing the socio-cultural aspects of the military and professional environment, comes to the conclusion that a hard army environment determines the possible difficulties of military and professional adaptation of women, determined by the presence of gender specific features that hinder their professional development and development in the framework of military activities. At the same time, the author notes that the consciousness and behavior of female militaries change significantly under the influence of the military social environment, thereby professionally deforming women. Professional deformation of female militaries serves as a mechanism that can significantly facilitate their adaptation processes within the army environment. The adaptation of female militaries, as a process of harmonizing their interaction with the masculine military environment, contributes to their successful professional socialization and promotion of the career ladder, breaking traditional gender-role stereotypes, as well as patriarchal patterns of sex-role communication that are peculiar of the military-professional environment. Determining the main ways to optimize the process of women’s adaptation in the military social environment, the author comes to the conclusion that the effectiveness of their military professionalization depends on how much the female militaries will be able to exercise gender flexibility in behavior, and also fully develop and realize masculine qualities.
Keywords: Military-professional environment, professional adaptation of female militaries, masculinity of the army environment, professional deformation.
RECRUITMENT OF EMPLOYEES TO THE INSTITUTIONS AND BODIES OF THE FEDERAL PENITENTIARY SERVICE OF RUSSIA
Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of legal and organizational activities in personnel recruitment of the employees of institutions and bodies of the penal system (hereinafter PS). The article pays attention to little-studied theoretical provisions and insufficiently reflected on the legislative level elements of the process of staffing carried out in the bodies and subordinate institutions of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia (hereinafter referred to as the FPS of Russia). The author demonstrates the results of a comprehensive and detailed study that contributed to the disclosure of the stages and methods involved in the implementation of the activity in question. The originality of the view on the problematic aspects of the presented topic is to consider staff recruitment in the PS as an organizational and legal mechanism that must be endowed with all the relevant components that launch it into action. In the course of the research, it was found that some of the components require further development, while others need to be improved, as they are dictated by modern realities. For the development of science and understanding of the personnel recruitment process, the definitions of the concepts of “staff recruitment in PS” and “organizational and legal activities for staff recruitment by officers of PS institutions and bodies” were developed in the PS. Attention was focused on the fundamental principles that determine the direction of development of all activities under consideration, where special principles were formulated that reflect specific features of service in the bodies and subordinate institutions of the FPS of Russia. By analyzing the legislative framework that regulates the activity under study, it was revealed that there is no clear fixation of the subjects responsible for the staff recruitment carried out by the staff of the PS institutions and bodies. In determining the goals of staffing and on the basis of the conducted research, tasks were identified that contributed to their achievement. Since any action should be subject to assessment for its efficiency, we developed an efficiency assessment system that involves assessing personnel recruitment in the PS based on the objectives and activities of the subjects of management. In the presented results of the research, we tried to focus on the problematic aspects and poorly understood components of personnel recruitment in the PS, as the staff of the PS are entrusted with duties of state significance, which leads to the need to improve the process facilitating the nucleus origination in institutions and bodies of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia.
Keywords: Staff recruitment in PS, organizational and legal activities for staff recruitment of PS institutions and bodies, staff planning; recruitment; selection of staff; adaptation; efficiency of staffing.