SECTION I. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL
Bayazitov S.G., Raynkhardt R.O.
DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN-TURKISH RELATIONS IN THE PRISM OF THE SYRIAN CRISIS (2015 – PRESENT TIME)
Abstract. The article is devoted to the transformation of relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Russian Federation in the context of the crisis in the Middle East and, in particular, in Syria, whose active phase began in 2015 and continues to this day. The main initial positions of both countries, the level and contradictions of their bilateral relations at the time of the crisis beginning were analyzed. Then, taking into account primarily foreign policy factors, the consistent evolution of Ankara’s position towards Moscow is shown against the backdrop of the intensification of the contradictions between the Turkish leadership and Western countries, and primarily with the USA. At the same time, attention is also paid to changes in the internal political character in Turkey, including the activities of the Kurdish political forces, attempts of rebellion and a number of other circumstances. An important role of the personality factor of the Russian and Turkish leaders was noted. V.V. Putin and R.T. Erdogan, in the dialogue on Syrian issues and discussion of joint measures aimed at resolving this situation. Finally, the prerequisites for the further strategic and mutually beneficial cooperation between Russia and Turkey in foreign policy and economy are highlighted and described, given the current situation.
Keywords: foreign policy, Turkey, Middle East, Russia-Turkey relationship, crisis in Syria.
“PERSHPEKTIVNAYA” ROAD FROM PETERSBURG TO MOSCOW
Abstract. The article is devoted to the little-known page of the history of the development of land communications in Russia in the 18th century. Object of the research: “pershpektivnaya” road between St. Petersburg and Moscow. Paved between the two capitals in the 1720s, this road greatly shortened the path between them. The distance along the old road through Novgorod, Kresttsy and Torzhok was 735 versts (appr. 487 miles), the new one was 593 versts (appr. 593 miles). Direct as an arrow, the road passed through the wooded, swampy sparsely populated lands of the Novgorod province. Based on archival sources and published legislative acts, the author reveals the reasons for laying a new road, the chronology of the construction of its plots. The author also conducts a comparative analysis of the nature of the construction organization of the “pershpektivnaya” road and “osudareva” (His Majesty’s) roads (a road paved in 1702 from the White Sea to Lake Onega for the transport of troops and navy) and draws a conclusion about a general military mobilization model for the implementation of large infrastructure objects of the Peter’s time. The article considers the mechanisms for providing construction workforce and financial resources. The author shows that immediately after the death of Peter I the new road was abandoned; instead of it the old Moscow-Novgorod road was used. On the basis of published memoirs, P.P. Melnikov, the author puts forward the hypothesis that in the 1840s. Nikolaevskaya railway passed through the Moscow-Petersburg “pershpektivnaya” road.
Keywords: roads, road policy, internal policy of the 18th century, Moscow-Petersburg road, “Pershpektivnaya” road, “Osudareva” road.
THE END OF “CAREER” SERGEI DEGAEV: THE RECOGNITION OR THE EXPOSURE?
Abstract. The article is devoted to the plot from the history of provocation in the party “Narodnaya Volya”, which has not been studied in detail yet. After being an agent of the secret police for about six months, Sergei Degaev went abroad, where his party mates became known for his role in the last mass arrests. Sources illustrating this story, there are very few, they are sometimes contradictory, and the researchers are almost not criticized. The only witness to this event, Lev Tikhomirov, in his memoirs reports that the traitor has repented. The article provides a new interpretation of the incident, it is proved that the provocateur is not admitted in treason, and was exposed.
Keywords: “Narodnaya Volya”, provocation, Sergey Degaev, Lev Tikhomirov, exposure.
SECTION II. PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL BASES OF COMPLEX COGNITION OF THE MODERN PERSON AND SOCIETY
Efrosyni-Alkisti D. Paraskevopoulou-Kollia, Panagiota I. Kontou, E.A. Romanova, V.A. Kuznetsov, Palios K. Zacharias.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GREEK AND RUSSIAN TEACHERS’ DAILY LIFE IN THE CLASSROOM
Abstract. The article presents the results of a comparative research between Greek and Russian teachers. Differences and similarities in teachers’ professional activities, problems and difficulties encountered by teachers in their daily work are displayed. We investigated the data obtained during the survey of random Greek and Russian teachers. The results are processed using the content analysis method. To identify the specifics of problem situations in the activities of Russian teachers, a special survey was designed featuring seven questions related to the emotional state of teachers. To interpret the results, we used methods of comparative analysis. Teachers of the school often face situations of uncertainty both directly in their pedagogical activities and in the process of their professional development. The task of choice for them becomes a relevant problem, and the forecasting of the consequences of their decisions is an integral part of professional activity. The high psycho-emotional strain of a teacher, since there is no room for error, the need to draw attention to a wide variety of activities, the constant pressure on the speech apparatus and other risks associated with tension – have a negative impact on the physical and mental health of a teacher. The obvious conclusion that can be drawn from the afore mentioned is that there seems to be a consistent pattern that most preschool teachers in our selection restrict themselves to daily working routine that is rigorously adherent to the formal guidelines imposed on them by the authority under which they operate – in this case, the Ministry of Education. This may occasionally happen even subconsciously – it is regarded as an unquestionable process, dictated by the need to meet the predetermined goals and year schedule. To date, teachers’ autonomy and initiative are concepts still under question.
Keywords: school educational, teachers, Greek educational, Russian educational.
ANTHROPOCENTRIC PHENOMENOLOGY OF INTERPERSONAL CONTACT: IN MEMORY OF FILONOV LEV BORISOVICH (01.08.1925-11.04.2016)
Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the psychological phenomenological phenomena, which constitute interpersonal contact. The goal is to draw attention to the “Method of Contact Interaction” (MCI) by Filonov Lev Borisovich. Prospects are connected with the formation of a professional platform for the development of contactology as a scientific direction in the field of theory and practice. The patterns and mechanisms, effects and phenomena accompanying interpersonal contact obtained in the researches make it possible to determine the main positions of the academic school of Filonov L.B. General characteristic is the theory of anthropocentric orientation of interpersonal contact. Conceptual positions on the dynamics of the staged establishment of contacts between people are justified by searching for the complementary nature of human relationships. Technological techniques introduced by the initiator ensure the effectiveness and optimality of the relationships and dependencies created in the contact between people. The diagnostic possibilities of establishing an interpersonal contact are aimed at recognizing the individual and personal characteristics of participants entering into interpersonal interaction. The process of the dynamics of the development of interpersonal rapprochement is realized as a combination of the personal qualities of each other and the formation of a common program of the found mutual union. The results of the study make it possible to distinguish the anthropocentric phenomenology of interpersonal contact, which can be explained through the creation in the contact of a number of “field” characteristics, the emergence of original effects and images, and also through the implementation of the line of modification contact programming and probabilistic prediction.
Keywords: contactology, dynamics of interpersonal contact, contact interaction technique, anthropocentric phenomenology of interpersonal contact.
SCIENTIFIC PROBLEMS OF DOMESTIC RESEARCHES IN THE TAXI SPHERE OF MEGAMETROPOLISES
Abstract. The phenomenon of the psychological state of society (PSS) is studied within the macropsychological approach. It attracts researchers with the opportunity to apply psychological theories to evaluate large social groups. The psychological state of society is considered taking into account both objective indicators and subjective assessments of people. This involves comparing of assessments of different groups of the population, since in the conditions of psychological polarization of society they often turn out to be opposite. The psychological polarization of society arises on the basis of social, economic, value and other types of polarization. To create a reliable system of indicators and predictors, the proposed model takes into account temporal characteristics and assessments of not only the present, but also the future psychological state of society. It requires research and discussion of the validity of the concept of the psychological state of society, since it is unclear to the end which characteristics and assessments most adequately reflect it and can serve as predictors of the direction of its change in the future. In the research, some individual psychological characteristics of the respondents (social identity, subjective well-being) were linked to the assessments of a number of characteristics of the psychological state of Russian society.
Keywords: Scientific research of the sphere of taxis, periods of researchers, the problems of theses of taxi activity, the profession of taxi driver, the psychology of labor of a taxi driver in a metropolis.
INDICATORS AND PREDICTORS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIETY
Abstract. Phenomenon of the psychological society state (PSS) is studied within the macropsychological approach. It attracts researchers with the opportunity to apply psychological theories to evaluate large social groups. Psychological society state is considered taking into account both objective indicators and subjective assessments of people. This involves comparing the estimates of different groups of the population, since in the conditions of psychological polarization of society they often turn out to be opposite. Psychological polarization of the society arises on the basis of social, economic, value and other types of polarization. To create a reliable system of indicators and predictors, the proposed model takes into account temporal characteristics and assessments of not only the present, but also the future psychological state of society. Validity of the concept of the psychological society state requires research and discussion, since it is unclear to the end which characteristics and assessments most adequately reflect it and can serve as predictors of the direction of its change in the future. In the research, some individual and psychological characteristics of the respondents (social identity, subjective well-being) were linked to assessments of a number of characteristics of the psychological state of Russian society.
Keywords: social psychology, psychological society state, social polarization, modeling of psychological phenomena, small and large social groups, social identity, social representations.
Romanova E.S., Makshantseva L.V.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS FOR FAMILIES BRINGING UP ADOLESCENTS WITH DEVIANT BEHAVIOR
Abstract. The article is a result of a work under the State task on the subject “The development and implementation of psychological assistance programs for families bringing up adolescents with deviant behavior by involving students for the implementation of the programs”. The research proves the urgency of the problem of studying the features of the development and education of adolescents with deviant behavior in both theoretical and practical aspects. The new material is summarized here and on the basis of which the authors suggested the idea of the need for psychological assistance to families bringing up adolescents with deviant behavior, taking into account a specific pattern of deviant behavior. The program of complex psychological assistance is offered for the families bringing up adolescents with deviant behavior and the efficiency of its application is proved by providing examples of activities implemented under the program. Particular attention is paid to involving students for providing psychological assistance to families bringing up adolescents with deviant behavior. The authors believe that this is a significant resource to help such kind of citizens and share their experience on involvement of students to provide psychological assistance to the families bringing up adolescents with deviant behavior. This work is interdisciplinary in nature and will be interesting to a wide range of professionals, students and volunteers engaged in psychological care and parents raising adolescents with deviant behavior.
Keywords: deviant behavior, asocial behavior, addictive behavior, adolescents, psychological assistance, family, dysfunctional families, model of deviant behavior, preventive measures, corrective and rehabilitation measures.
SECTION III. PROBLEMS OF EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND SELF-REALIZATION OF THE SUBJECT OF LABOR AND LIVING STRATEGY
GENDER SPECIFICS OF TEACHING INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS
Abstract. The article describes the problems of gender differences in education and adaptation of foreign students to university life in Russia. The author tries to find out what kind of influence gender specifics exerts on foreign students. The author analyses the origin of gender stereotypes, which depend on national, social, cultural and religious peculiarities of students and their influence on successful educational process. High emphasis is placed on physiological causes of men’s and women’s inclination to different educational activities and on the role of parents in gender aspect in education. Moreover, lecturers, their behavior and educational resources have the crucial role in forming and strengthening of the students’ existed stereotypes. For effective work the author offers special types of activities and speech exercises which are aimed at forming skills in teamwork and unification of students’ interests during the classes in the groups with gender differences. The author analyses boys’ problems with discipline, boys’ and girls’ models of social behavior inside the group, attitude to female lecturers.
Keywords: gender difference, brain cerebrum, parents’ influence, gender stereotypes, lecturer’s behavior, cultural differences, language group, religious specifics, forming of the stereotypes, speech exercises, model of social behavior.
Makovsky E.S., Krasilnikov I.M.
CONDITIONS OF SUCCESSFUL COMPOSER’S CREATIVITY IN THE PUBLIC ORCHESTRA GENRE
Abstract. In connection with the growing number of professional folk orchestras, the problem of expanding their repertoire arose. The article examines conditions that determine the success of the composer’s creativity in the given national instrumental genre: reflection in the works created by him of his own experiences; suggestiveness, “focus” on the listener; “focus on the performer” – an effective and convenient presentation of musical material; creation of logically developing, detailed dramatic constructions. The main element of the creative process is the desire for new form-building bases, the result of which is the embodiment of artistic design and the search for original dramatic techniques in composers’ works. It must be remembered that this is not the only approach, and if the composer tries to express his compositional ideas with his new formations, this does not mean that this work will be in demand in professional performing groups. Even if there is no original harmonic language in the works, such works can have a high artistic value and will certainly be popular among listeners and will be included in the permanent repertoire of Russian folk orchestras. Analyzed festivals of contemporary music in the last five years for the Russian folk orchestra just confirm the justice of the author’s conclusions.
Keywords: folk orchestra, composer’s creativity, content, sociability, consistency of musical composition.
SOME ASPECTS OF PROFESSIONAL PEDAGOGICAL COMMUNICATION
Abstract. In this article, the author refers to some psychological and pedagogical aspects of communication in the profession of a music teacher. This problem is common for various areas of pedagogy. Communication is present in all types of human activity. In the pedagogical process, it is the instrument through which succession is realized in musical pedagogy and Culture as a whole. The ability to interact with the student is a sign of the communicative ability of the teacher. Empathy is a symbolic professional ability, which is one of the main elements of the productive life-creation of a pedagogical personality. The central section of empathy is the ability of the teacher to living response to psychological conditions, experiences and moods, musical performances of the student, and at the same time, respect and interest, including his creative personality. The methods of confidential communication, forms of dialogue, conversation, creative discussion help in the learning process to turn the student to effective cooperation. Professional and pedagogical communication is an important and necessary tool for organizing creative pedagogical cooperation through which the necessary conditions can be created for the effective training of a professional multiskilled musician, an active participant in musical culture in the present and future.
Keywords: Communication, professional and pedagogical interaction, communicativeness, empathy, dialogue, creative pedagogical cooperation, continuity, culture.
THE STRUCTURE AND CONTENT OF THE TEXTBOOK CHAPTER ON ITALIAN IN THE CONTEXT OF EARLY PROFESSIONALIZATION
Abstract. The article explains the importance of early language proficiency and describes in detail the structure and content of a chapter of the textbook on Italian, in which a common language is combined with the professional language. The article describes how the language, discourse, communicative, and sociocultural competences are formed in the textbook within the framework of the educational vocational language discourse, which ensures the active knowledge of the Italian language by students in the field of everyday communication and for professional purposes already in the early stages of education.
Keywords: early language professionalization, professional competences, educational professional language discourse, textbook on the Italian, students of the beginning flow.
Pakhomova E.A., Rusakov V.K.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENON OF WOMAN’S FEAR WHEN ACHIEVING PROFESSIONAL SUCCESS
Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of strategy and practice of development and self-realization of the subject of labor at various stages of achievement of professional success. The author reveals the essential signs, psychological features and conditions for professional success. A detailed analysis was given to the key signs of women’s fear arising from the achievement of success in professional work. The article, on the results of empirical research, shows the contradictions and mechanisms of their influence on the manifestation of the psychological phenomenon of the woman’s fear when achieving professional success. Unresolved contradictions determined the dynamics of emerging conflicts and difficulties. Particular attention is paid to the substantiation of the theoretical and methodological foundation of the system study. This made it possible to determine the psychological conditions that contribute to overcoming the emerging fear. On the rich, first introduced into scientific circulation of empirical material, the stages of the change of the investigated phenomenon are distinguished. This material reveals the features of a woman’s success, which is a guarantee that she has personal qualities that allow her to perform an objective self-assessment of the level of success in self-realization.
Keywords: professional activity; mechanisms for the successful self-realization of women; success of the activity; the essence of fear when achieving success; psychological conditions for overcoming fear.
Pakhomova E.A., Tarasov YU.YU.
ACTUALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF THE SUBJECTS OF LABOR IN THE SOCIAL SPHERE
Abstract. The article reveals the relevance of the topic being analyzed; the main components of the author’s research concept are presented, on the basis of which new empirical and theoretical positions and conclusions were obtained and introduced into the scientific circulation. The content of the communicative competence of the subjects of labor in the social sphere is analyzed in detail. The authors succeeded in presenting the theoretical and methodological system research, and also logically justify them with the author’s provisions and conclusions valuable for psychological science and practice. In the materials presented, special value is represented by reliance on important theoretical and empirical, correctly presented conclusions obtained by other researchers. In particular, it is correctly used to understand the competence in communication, introduced by academician AA. Bodalev, the concept of “psychologically optimal communication,” defined. It, according to the authors of the article, makes it possible to clarify the actual facet of communication, indicating the distinguishing of the goal to the participants of communication in accordance with the motives that lead to these goals, and with the help of such methods that do not cause partners dissatisfaction. The psychological conditions of its effective development are disclosed and technologies, methods and steps are proposed to achieve this goal. The central place is given to the consideration of the actualization of communicative competence in a number of other competencies.
Keywords: subject of labor; communicative competence; model and conditions of actualization and development of communicability of the subject of labor in the social sphere.
Folomeeva T.V., Folomeev YU.N.
PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF TEACHING THE BASICS OF PROVIDING THE CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENS
Abstract. The relevance of the subject matter is determined by the need to clarify the specifics of the content and improve the methodological and practical recommendations in the field of problem training in the basics of constitutional law. The success of the implementation of the goals and objectives of educational institutions is largely due to the level of competence and motivation for the joint activity of teachers and trainees. The analysis of the problems revealed in this subject area points to the need to draw the trainees’ attention to the joint creative search for additional measures to overcome the contradictions and inconsistencies between the declared constitutional guarantees for ensuring the protection of citizens’ rights and freedoms and the actual level of their material and budgetary filling. The presented results and recommendations can be used by the teaching staff of educational institutions to improve the quality of the educational process and the authorities in order to improve the legislation.
Keywords: ensuring constitutional protection of citizens’ rights and freedoms, educational institution, constitutional guarantees, normative legal acts, state social debt, limited liability, corporate social responsibility of business, balance of protected values.