SECTION I. HISTORICAL ASPECTS
OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL
GENESIS OF INFORMATION CULTURE PHENOMENON
Abstract. The article focuses on the research of information culture, as a multidimensional, complicated phenomenon arising from interaction among social sciences in the field of study “knowledge”, ”information”, ”culture”. The phenomena “knowledge” and “information” are being researched as interdependent elements in the work, which meanings are changing because of the nature of the times and social conditions as well: from interpretation the knowledge as a product of a cognitive process to the knowledge as the result of information activity. Beginning with a detailed analysis of the phenomenon “knowledge” the author of the article underlines the historical value of the cognitive activity which is being transformed because of the evolution of society and technological development into information activity. Information symbolized a new age, a product of unique human relations, which are characterized by a latent mechanization of social interaction of people. Particular attention is given to culture, which acts as a custodian of social integrity, nature of a society and serving as an engine for its development. In this context, the information culture is considered through the prism of all these phenomena, included social knowledge, cognitive process of individuals and principles of information exchange.
Key words: knowledge, information, culture, information culture, society.
“IT IS SELF UNDERSTOOD THAT FIRE MUST BE EXECUTE AGGRESSIVE…” SHELLING OF PRESNYA ON 17th DECEMBER 1905
Abstract. The article deals with the history of one of the final episodes of the December uprising in Moscow 1905 – the shelling of Presnya during the attack on the “rebellious” district. This issue was not duly highlighted in literature. The author comes to the conclusion that the operation, as agreed upon the day before at a military-police meeting involving the Governor-General Vice-Admiral F.V. Dubasov, was hastily and poorly prepared, there was no connection between artillery and a party of infantry that “cleansed” Presnya. As a consequence, Chief of Artillery of Grenadier Corps V.I. Gippius, by not knowing the instructions given to him, for a second time opened fire at the district without warning Colonel G.A. Min, the commander of infantry. This resulted in the failure of offensive on December,17th and incoordination within the system built up by Dubasov to combat uprising.
Keywords: Prokhorov manufactory, military-police meetings, Presnya, Governor-General, artillery battery, Moscow Military District, reports, Nicholas barracks.
MOSCOW MILITARY DISTRICT ON THE EVE OF WORLD WAR I: STATEMENT OF HISTORIOGRAPHY
Abstract. Russian historians have carried out a great work on the study of the preparation of the Russian army for the First World War, 1914-1918. The 100-year anniversary since the beginning of the conflict in 2014 served as a serious impulse to a significant increase in the amount of research in this direction. However, it should be noted that many issues of this important challenge have been little explored. One of them is the military-district organization of the Russian army. Separate Individual military districts were ever less studied. There are only seven large-scale pieces major works in which the subject of study is a separate military district, moreover, they are all created in the post-Soviet period. The subject of this article is the Moscow Military District and its selection has been determined the following. This district covered 14 provinces and its center was located in the second capital of the country. The Moscow Military District was one of the two largest in terms of the number of troops – by 1914 five corps were based here. For 5 years (1909 – 1914) before the First World War, the Moscow District was commanded by one person – general of cavalry P. A. Pleve. Control of military structures in the district with the center in the second capital of the empire, Moscow, is administrative and strategic tasks of a state scale. Therefore, the study of the statement of Russian historiography of the Moscow Military District for its subsequent special studying seems relevant. The analysis that has been undertaken leads to the conclusion that at the present stage of development, domestic historical science does not have a significant number of writings on the topic of the study. There is only one work (thesis of A. N. Kuksin in 2001) devoted to the Moscow Military District and five writings that indirectly affect this military administrative unit. The historiography has no fundamental works directly devoted to the problem of study and allowing frame a holistic view of processes that took place in the Moscow Military District before the World War. By reason of some significant drawbacks, the main of which is a narrow source base, the thesis of A.I. Kuksin cannot claim on this role. All this indicates that the topic is still far from being fully developed and requires further careful studying because there is a large number of unused archival materials and other sources.
Keywords: Moscow Military District, military-district system, preparation for a war.
THE JEWISH DIASPORA OF FRANCE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY: A NEW STRATEGY FOR SURVIVAL
Abstract. Anti-Semitism is undoubtedly one of the most destructive forms of xenophobia. In some historical periods, manifestations of anti-Semitism in France were a part of domestic policy (the Dreyfus case, a spike in anti-Semitism during the Seven-Day War of 1967, and the policies of the government of Charles de Gaulle, etc.) At the moment, a new increase in manifestations of intolerance on religious and ethnic grounds is noted against the Jewish Diaspora of this country. There are attacks, first of all, on Jewish religious and educational centers, on members of Jewish communities who are on street in traditional clothes for Jewish culture. The expert community connects this with diffusion of ultra-right ideas, migration processes and radical Islamism. Moreover, if previously anti-Semitism within French society was an example of vertical conflict, the current situation shows all the signs of horizontal conflict, when the state distances itself and condemns actions against Jews, openly opposes anti-Semitism. Jewish Diaspora of France in turn is forced to develop forms of counteracting manifestations of anti-Semitism while mobilizing and temporarily refusing free use of symbols and objects that could allow to identify them as members of an ethnic group as well as mastering combat skills of protection from physical violence, creating structures responsible for the safety of members of Jewish communities and much more, up to repatriation.
Keywords: Jewish Diaspora of France, anti-Semitism, conflict, ethno-cultural mobilization, ethno-political conflict, terrorism.
SECTION II. COMPLEX COGNITION
OF THE MODERN PERSON AND SOCIETY
INTELLECTUAL AND SCIENTIFIC-PRACTICAL POTENTIAL OF UNESCO HUMANITARIAN AND PEACE-MAKING CONCEPTIONS
Abstract. The key issue of this article is the way how The department UNESCO of the Institute of Social and Political Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences realizes humanitarian and peace-making conceptions of UNESCO: establishment of a new discipline – paxology – as a world science; the problems of peace-making and peace-building, of humanitarian safety, politilogical and moral characteristics of globalization and of multi-pole world formation. The article unfolds the role of UNESCO and UNO in realization of these programs an Russian Federation impact in it.
Key words: civilization, world culture, integration, globalization, peace-making, humanitarian safety, peace-building, “war culture”, terrology, mafiology. social consolidation.
Rostovskaya T.K., Egorychev A.M.
THE SPHERE OF YOUTH POLICY AS A NECESSARY REALITY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN STATE AND SOCIETY
Abstract. The article presents the results of an analytical study related to the role of young people in the socio-economic and socio-cultural development of the country. The authors base their research on the position expressed in the belief that the Russian youth is an important resource and potential for the development of the Russian state and society. This creates the need for a systematic and systematic approach to the study of the problems of the younger generation. The domestic and international experience in the implementation of the state youth policy is analyzed, which allowed to identify the main provisions that characterize it, as well as to differentiate the problems of youth in the framework of sociological research into two large groups. A review of existing research on this issue shows that the nature of the definition of the scientific status of the concept of “youth” is determined by the peculiarities of socio-historical, social and socio-demographic approaches. On the basis of the analysis of scientific literature on youth and youth policy, the authors propose a refined concept of “youth policy” and pay attention to the feasibility of the formation and development of the theory of social development of youth.
Keyword: methodology, youth policy, socio-historical approach, social approach, socio-demographic approach, youth, socio-demographic groups, society, social processes.
PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXPORT POTENTIAL OF THE RUSSIAN EDUCATION BY IMPROVING COMPETITIVENESS IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET
Abstract. The article considers prospects of development of the export potential of education by improving competitiveness of the Russian education in the international market. The author has carried out the analysis of the role and place of the Russian educational services in the international market, paying special attention to the “Development of the Export Potential of the Russian Education System” project. Key problems, which are barriers to improving competitiveness of the Russian education system, are examined, and the directions of their minimization (elimination) with a view to achieving the program objectives are offered. The research demonstrates that Russia has good prospects of development of the export potential, however, as practice shows, implementation of program projects in the field, has begun without complex preparation. The Russian educational organizations have no sufficient material and technical facilities for enrolment of constantly growing number of foreign students. As a result, the Russian education market is not capitalized enough what may consequently affect competitiveness and realization of the export potential of the Russian education the international market. Enhancing quality of exported educational services in many respects requires substantial investments, thus revision of the “Development of the Export Potential of the Russian Education System” Program, in particular, in financial terms is essential.
Keywords: export potential, competitiveness of education, export of education, priority project.
PSYCHOLOGY OF LAW: INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF INTERDISCIPLINARY branch OF LEGAL KNOWLEDGE
Abstract. The psychology of law is a universal base for studying the personality, lifestyle of a person, his motives, deeds and actions. Etymologically, the history of the term “psychology of law” dates back to the second half of the XIX century. For the first time this term was used by the German scientist Rudolf von Jhering in the introduction to his work “Struggle for the Right”, which was written on the basis of a lecture he gave at the University of Vienna in 1872. In translation of this work from German into Russian, which was done by P.P. Volkov in 1874, this position has been reflected. Other authors, primarily criminologists, used the term “criminal” or “criminal psychology”. In the European school of social sciences, a special role in the development of the psychology of law belongs to Zh.G. Tard, G. Aschaffenburg, L.I. Petrazhitsky. Petrazhitsky’s psychological theory of law was developed by his students P.A. Sorokin, N.S. Timashev, G.D. Gurvich and others. In the literature of the Soviet period, the term “psychology of law” was well established in the middle of the XX century. The most fundamental were the studies in the field of the psychology of law carried out by V.L. Vasiliev, M.I. Enikeev, V.V. Sorokin, G.G. Shikhantsov. By the middle of the XX century, the psychology of law was formed as a legal branch of knowledge and academic discipline, which was included in the program of training specialists in the field of jurisprudence at the master’s level. The process of institutionalization of the psychology of law, as a branch of legal knowledge and academic discipline, was lengthy in time and remains debatable in terms of understanding its subject and theoretical and methodological status.
Keywords: psychology of law, Legal psychology, psychological theory, Interdisciplinary branch of legal knowledge.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – THE NATIONAL SAFETY BACKGROUND
Abstract. The article considers the transition to sustainable development through the prism of security, reveals the relationship of sustainable development with the state of human and social capital, the value orientation of society, its culture. Special attention is paid to the problems and prospects of Azerbaijan in the transition to sustainable development.
Keywords: security, sustainable development, human capital, social capital, culture, multiculturalism.
Barchan N.N., Chumachenko A.P.
ORGANIZATION OF COUNTERACTION TO EXTREMISM IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING
Abstract. The research aim consists in the theoretical comprehension of questions of organization and realization of politics in the field of counteraction to extremism and ground of recommendations on their perfection. A research object is a mechanism of counteraction to extremism. The elements of mechanism of counteraction to extremism and organizational activity of subjects of management of higher educational establishment (institution of higher learning) come forward the article of research. The article is devoted to getting a clear idea and clarification of aims, maintenance, principles and methods of counteraction to extremism and methodology of organization of antiextremist activity in institution of higher learning with the use of totality of research procedures, technique and methods. During undertaken a study basic were specified concepts in this area is extremism, counteraction to extremism, organization of counteraction to extremism. The different aspects of conceptual mechanism of management are considered counteraction to extremism, conformities to law and principles of counteraction to extremism are educed and their detailed description is given. The authorial going is presented near organization of counteraction to extremism, as process plugging in itself a job of counteraction to extremism mix, that, in fact, present his maintenance. The special attention is spared to principles, forms, methods and practical events on counteraction to extremism in institution of higher learning, that can be used in different educational organizations. Offer developments found support among other institutions of higher learning during realization of research and practice conferences, they can be examined as a complex decision of pressing questions of development of conceptual mechanism on counteraction to extremism and methodological, деятельностного approach of organizational activity in institutions of higher learning.
Keywords: extremism, counteraction to extremism, organization of counteraction to extremism, management mechanism, principles, forms and methods of counteraction to extremism.
SECTION III. EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND SELF-REALIZATION OF
THE SUBJECT OF LABOR AND LIFE STRATEGY
PEDAGOGICAL THINKING AS A WAY OF DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTIVE COGNITIVE ACTIVITY OF STUDENTS AT THE INITIAL STAGE OF MUSICAL LEARNING
Abstract. The author focuses on the psychological and pedagogical aspects of thinking in the profession of an educator and musician that contribute to development of productive cognitive activity of young musicians at elemental level of learning. Pedagogical thinking is a key professional skill and one of the main elements of the productive creative life of a pedagogical personality. Using it an educator can find and design methods of pedagogical influence, search for methods and forms of solving pedagogical tasks, as a result, the pedagogical thinking is becoming becomes creativity, which contributes to the formation of a student’s skills of for cognitive challenges at an initial stage of musical education. Thinking in pedagogical activity is a psychological basis for setting and solving learning tasks. The use and application of the activity results determine the nature of their occurrence logically. They imply the existence of subject-to-subject relations in the dealings between teacher and student. The thinking works under dialectic laws and studies various phenomena in pedagogy within the process of their development while contributing to a more accurate determination of the nature of the student. This allows building a process of interaction with a novice musician in the right direction. At the initial stage of musical education, the student acts not only as an object of training and education, but also as a creatively acting subject and personality. The interaction of teacher and student at this stage involves the development of intellectual activity of thinking. A necessary psychological condition in this case is the mutual activity of two participants in the process, which allows the student to form such a vital position aiming at optimizing his productive cognitive activity. The process of learning music, at the initial stage, is based on the subject-to-subject relations of two participants in the pedagogical process. So, in this case it can be defined as personality-oriented. The positive spirit of the teacher in communicating with the student contributes to the removal of psychological barriers and in the best way creates necessary prerequisites and conditions for effective training and creative development of the student. The teacher is in this case not only the creator of the creative pedagogical process, but also as a link between the student and the music world.
Keywords. Pedagogical thinking, pedagogical communication and interaction, productive cognitive activity, musical education and upbringing, creativity skills, initial stage of musical education, pedagogical collaboration, dialogical forms of pedagogical interaction, ensemble music-making, project activities, multimedia technology.
Makshantseva L.V., Zotova M.V.
TO THE QUESTION OF STUDYING OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FACTORS OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR OF TEENAGERS
Abstract. Relevance of a problem of studying of internal and external factors which can have impact on origin of prerequisites and manifestation of deviant behavior at teenagers locates in article. In article teoretiko-methodological approaches of domestic and foreign researchers to studying of the reasons and factors of deviant behavior of teenagers, and also various approaches to a solution of the problem of deviant behavior of minor offenders are analyzed. Importance of consideration of deviant behavior of teenagers in a complex, as a significant social, social and psychological, social and pedagogical and sociocultural problem is noted. In the analysis of conditions and reasons of manifestation of deviations from socially acceptable behavior, the norms accepted in society external and internal factors are characterized. Refer their individual and personal features defining tendency to deviant behavior of different types, forms, types, orientations to the internal factors having impact on development and behavior of teenagers. Refer the processes happening in society to the external factors having impact on development and behavior of teenagers, including: political, ideological, legislative, institutional (first of all family, educational institutions). The special part thus is assigned to a family, features of family education, and also the circle of contemporaries. The modern trends of the raised problem are revealed, which reflect the interrelation of the conditions of development of the processes of society and the processes of development of children and adolescents, on the example of the wide spread of information and communication technologies and the emergence of new trends in the development of the new generation, in comparison with previous generations. It is emphasized that as the social phenomenon it is important to consider and study deviant behavior of teenagers taking into account all its forms and manifestations in the context of close interaction of parental and pedagogical communities, heads of youth groups and associations. Proper response of a social environment, adults at emergence of the reasons capable to result in deviant behavior of teenagers, will promote prevention of the created problem at a stage of its origin. Along with it is noted that in psychological scheduled maintenance there are considerable difficulties at early detection of tendency of the personality to deviations. Results of the empirical research directed on disclosure of features of aggression and tendency to aggression of teenagers as internal factor of deviant behavior taking into account personal and situational aspects, and also in the context of features of family education which can be a significant external factor of deviant behavior of teenagers are presented in article.
Keywords: deviant behavior, deviant behavior, teenager, external factors of deviant behavior, internal factors of deviant behavior, aggression, tendency to aggression and violence, psychological prevention, dysfunctional families.
THEORETICAL-METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS PROGRAMS PREPARATION FOR THE SUBSTITUTE FAMILY CARE
Abstract. The article analyzes the training programs for citizens who have expressed a desire to take an orphaned child (children) for foster care in their family to foster family care in the framework of schools of adoptive parents (PDS). The relevance of this problem for the social sphere and the state of the Russian Federation as a whole is emphasized. Attention is drawn to the fact that the existing programs in working with orphans, the vast majority of whom have deprivation disorders, as well as physical and mental pathologies, unfortunately, are superficial and monotonous and therefore are ineffective. In addition, such programs, due to their short duration, do not represent an opportunity to form and develop in potential adoptive (substitute) parents an adequate level of knowledge, skills, abilities and professionally important qualities necessary for the effective implementation of substitute family care. All this suggests that substitute family care should, at its core, become professional and be carried out by professional adoptive (substitute) parents, that is, specialists with relevant professional competencies.
Key words: orphanhood, school of adoptive parents, orphan child, replacing family care, competence-based approach.
Kairova R.B., Kurdanova Kh.M., Sarbasheva Z.M.
ORMATION OF CREATIVE INDIVIDUALITY OF THE PERSONALITY BY MEANS OF DECORATIVE AND APPLIED ARTS
Abstract. In the article the authors note that in the education system it is necessary to pay great attention to decorative and applied art, since the original roots of the national culture are lost. They believe that teachers should see their main task as instilling interest in their national culture and art. They have many problems, for example, how to present the cultural heritage of national creativity to the future generation, how to find a creative synthesis of the old and the new. To do this, it is necessary to use in the teaching work a wide range of folkloric creativity of the people, materials of applied fine arts.
Key words: Decorative and applied art, education, national culture, products, tradition, the future generation.