SECTION I. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL
FEATURES OF THE STATE STRUCTURE OF THE BOSPORUS
Abstract. The article analyzes the structure of the state structure of the Bosporan state from the time of the reign of Spartokids to the Roman era. The author comes to the conclusion about the creation of a Hellenistic state in the Bosporus no earlier than the 1st century BC. BC, and the improvement of the control system according to the Hellenistic model, in his opinion, took place already in the Roman era.
Kotovskaya M.G., Shvets E.G.
MALE AND FEMALE: MYTHOLOGY IN THE SPACE OF CULTURE
Abstract. The conscious orientation of writers, artists and theatrical figures to gender canonical prescriptions in the space of culture has formed and continues to form recognizable images in works of art. Images created in accordance with such a strategy exist in the mind of the viewer/reader due to a more or less good knowledge of classical literature and an idea of the general course of events in world and national history. Assuming that the gender images of previous eras in the mass consciousness are captured, first of all, by works of art, and at the same time, taking into account the interest of the modern reader in a certain “truth”, often understood as a certain constant, the creator makes a kind of revision of the classics, using recognizable heroes in advertising strategies. Thus, the existing gender mythology in the space of culture serves as an excellent tool for creating a high-quality product of new forms of mass cultural works and promotional products. The article is an essay study and is presented in the form of a description of the social aspect and cultural and historical analysis of the creation of gender mythologemes through works of art and literature.
THE CRISIS SITUATION IN KAZAKHSTAN AS A FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS
Abstract. The problems of the article reflect the professional formation of the officers of the armed forces, other troops and military formations in modern crisis conditions. The crisis situation is considered as a circumstance for the practical professional activity of military specialists in its settlement and replenishment of the experimental base. The January 2022 crisis in Kazakhstan served as the basic basis for clarifying the results of a pedagogical study on the development of the professional experience of law enforcement officers.
Tursunov Y.S., Tsiunchuk R.A.
TRADE AND ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Abstract. The article presents the history and development of trade and economic relations between the Republic of Tajikistan and the United States of America. The specifics of establishing multifaceted trade and economic cooperation between the Republic of Tajikistan and the United States of America in the period from 2001 to 2016 are revealed. The study of the peculiarities of relations between the Republic of Tajikistan and the United States of America can be in demand when writing generalizing works on the history of international relations, diplomacy, foreign regional studies, the foreign policy of Tajikistan, as well as in the preparation of educational and methodological manuals, reading general and special university courses.
Chervyakov R. Yu.
“HERE’S A PROMISE OF A FLAT IN THE CENTRE OF THE CO-OPERATIVE”. THE HOUSING QUESTION AND HOUSING CO-OPERATION IN THE PAGES OF CROCODILE (1924–1937)
Abstract. Against the background of the housing crisis that existed in the USSR in the 1920s and 1930s, of great importance were not only the real steps taken by the authorities to resolve it, but also its presentation in the periodical press. Crocodile magazine, the country’s leading satirical publication, actively covered the housing problem, pointing out the insufficient construction of houses and their low quality, sanitary and hygienic problems in old housing, and criticized the middle and lower levels of administration for this. With regard to housing co-operatives, introduced to eliminate the crisis, the magazine stereotyped their “bourgeois” nature, the infiltration of “former” and neupmans into them, and the ineffective work of the co-operative boards. At the same time, the magazine avoided harsh criticism of the People’s Commissariat and the ministries.
Adu Y. N., Nwalie G.A.
THE HISTORICAL BASIS OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS AFRICA IN THE FIRST REPUBLIC
Abstract. The period between the 1950s and 1960s was a pivotal moment for the African continent. It was the time many Arican states gained independence from their colonial rulers. Independence meant many of these new states had to formulate their own foreign policy approach. Using the constructivist theory of international relations, we argue that the shared struggle experience of colonial rule significantly influenced the foreign policy approach of many African states, including Nigeria. As a result, pan-Africanism was prominent at the time, and countries such as Nigeria developed an international relations framework based on two key principles: a focus on Africa described as Afrocentrism, and non-alignment. Our article concludes with a critical analysis of Afrocentrism and if it has been successful for Nigeria. This article is an important addition to the debate on the foreign polices of newly independent African states in the 1950s and 1960s, after they gained independence.
SECTION II. COMPLEX COGNITION OF THE MODERN PERSON AND SOCIETY
Avetisyan S.S., Sargsyan A.A.
THE MAIN TRENDS IN THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF LEGAL EDUCATION
Abstract. This article examines the possibilities of forming a digital educational environment in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Armenia as prerequisites for high-quality legal education, training of qualified personnel in accordance with modern challenges and requirements of world standards. The authors analyze the processes of digitalization in the context of both the formation under their influence of a new profession – IT lawyer, the development of appropriate digital competencies by students, and the improvement of the process of teaching law using innovative technologies. Based on the analysis of foreign practice of digitalization of higher education, the introduction of digital technologies in the field of practical teaching of law, the study of the provisions of the federal state standard of higher education in the field of training “Jurisprudence”, it is concluded that there are certain gaps in the domestic education system in the analyzed aspect, the directions of their filling and the development of further digitalization of the educational environment are highlighted. It is noted that at present, neither in the Russian Federation nor in the Republic of Armenia, the imperative requirement regarding the digital competence of the teaching staff of higher educational institutions has been legislated, in connection with which it is proposed to make some adjustments to the regulatory framework of these states.
FORMATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE TO SUPPORT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT (VOLUNTEERING) IN THE TERRITORIAL DISTRICT OF THE FPS OF RUSSIA
Abstract. The data that testify to the initial stage of the formation of the volunteering support infrastructure in the Far Eastern Territorial District of the Federal Penitentiary Service of the Russian Federation are given. The activities of volunteers are presented mainly at the level of their interaction and cooperation with local regional public, social, religious, administrative organizations, as well as regional authorities. All this makes it possible to recognize the fact of the initial stage of the formation and development of the volunteering support infrastructure in the Far Eastern Territorial District of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia. The essence of the infrastructure to support volunteerism (volunteering) at the present stage of its development is the presence and development of cooperation links between organizations, departments of the Federal Penitentiary Service not only with departmental, but also with other non-departmental regional organizations and institutions, aimed at assisting and facilitating the further development of volunteerism (volunteering) of the Federal Penitentiary Service . The methodological basis was the analysis of empirical material and the value-axiological principle of the study. Conclusion: at the present stage of development of the volunteer movement (volunteering) of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, the initial stage of the formation of its support infrastructure is being carried out and, accordingly, it is characterized by the predominance of a horizontal level of development. The effective development of volunteerism of the Federal Penitentiary Service along the horizontal line is a necessary prerequisite for the integration of volunteerism of the territorial districts of the Federal Penitentiary Service into a single organizationally formalized vertical line – from the grassroots to the highest levels. Novelty: the concept of “mixed vertical-horizontal level” has been introduced in the meaning of the interaction of volunteering of the Federal Penitentiary Service at the territorial level, including with non-departmental organizations, institutions of the region (horizontal level) and intradepartmental interaction of organizations, institutions of the Federal Penitentiary Service (vertical level).
APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ANALYSIS
Abstract. At present, the problems of research related to various aspects of the living conditions of modern organizations are becoming relevant. One of the areas of such research is the study of the organizational environment. In science, there is a wide layer of research into the internal environment of the organization, which includes material and social components. At the same time, a comprehensive study of the properties of the organizational environment, characterizing it as a psychological and pedagogical phenomenon, is not represented in science.
Based on this, the purpose of this article is to identify the properties of the organizational environment that affect the professional and personal development of employees of the organization.
The method of achieving the goal is the analysis of approaches to the study of the organizational environment, presented in the management sciences, in psychology, in pedagogy.
The study showed that the managerial approach to the study of the organizational environment describes it as a set of material and non-material factors operating within the organization, created as a result of management actions to achieve organizational goals. Its important property is a high level of order. The main mechanism of influence of the organizational environment on the professional and personal development of employees are formal requirements.
Another group of studies of the organizational environment reflects the organizational-psychological approach. Such studies are based on the idea that an organization as a social community has a number of specific properties and processes that determine the group and individual behavior of its members. Analysis of studies has shown that an important property of the organizational environment is trust. It is influenced by personnel practices and leadership based on the proclaimed corporate values and consistent with the expectations of employees.
The organizational environment acts as a factor in the socialization of employees and has the potential to positively and negatively influence them. Updating the positive impact and preventing the negative impact of the organizational environment on employees is ensured by creating conditions for the purposeful development and value orientation of employees in accordance with corporate interests and vital tasks that are significant for employees.
DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL CREATIVE THINKING
Abstract. The article discusses the advantages and importance of professional creative thinking in human activity. The features of a professional in the field of creative thinking are characterized. The main types of professional creative thinking, European (analytical, American), Asian (intuitive, Chinese), are considered. A foreign study (the California Experiment) is considered and analyzed, which aims to study professional creative thinking from school age, throughout life, to death due to natural causes (old age). The theoretical and methodological foundations for the organization of the study are considered, and the authors come to the conclusion about the importance of a systematic consideration of professional creative thinking. The semantic theory of O.K. Tikhomirov is considered, which allows us to consider thinking in a multidimensional, systematic way. In the theory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the following are considered: understanding thinking within the framework of this school; goal formation in creative thinking; creative thinking. The theory of Y. A. Ponomarev, which significantly complements the theory of O.K. Tikhomirov, is also considered. Methods of studying professional creative thinking are presented. The author’s model of professional creative thinking development is considered. The authors propose to distinguish three states (zones) of the level of creative thinking (actual creative thinking, immediate development, potential state). The levels of development of professional creative thinking are characterized. The main patterns of the development of thinking are presented, which allow the development of creative professional thinking quite effectively.
Koltan E.V., Pakhomova E.A.
THE PLACE OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN HIGHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN UNIVERSITIES OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE SCANDINAVIAN REGION
Abstract. The article discusses current trends in higher education in the countries of the Scandinavian region, presenting the results of a study of the use of the English language, presented in the Declaration on the language policy of the Nordic countries. The results show that English is used for academic purposes related to the specific discipline being studied, as well as the level of students’ education (bachelor’s or master’s). They also point out that in the natural sciences, the use of English is a pragmatic reality for both teachers and students, while in the humanities and social sciences, English is usually used as an additional or auxiliary language in parallel with the Scandinavian languages.
PEDAGOGICAL TECHNIQUE: SELF-REGULATION TECHNIQUES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEDAGOGICAL MASTERY OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHER
Abstract. The article analyses pedagogical technique in the activity of a teacher of a foreign (English) language as a component of the development of pedagogical mastery at the university stage. With the help of methods of content analysis, survey, observation and description, the complex of significant pedagogical techniques of self-regulation in the formation of the emotional competence and psychological culture of the teacher as a field of development of pedagogical skills is analyzed. The identified priority zones of development in the emotional competence of the teacher are compared with possible techniques of self-regulation and the expected effect of the technique is described. The results of reflections are presented in the “problem – pedagogical technique – effect” paradigm.
The hypothesis validates that the identification of problems in interpersonal communication with students at the university stage of development of pedagogical mastery and elaboration of recommendations (self-regulation techniques) on strengthening emotional competence can contribute to the development of psychological culture and pedagogical mastery. The analysis confirmed that the identified pedagogical techniques of self-regulation are important, being a significant component in the mechanism of mastering a particular pedagogical technology and need close attention. It is concluded that the possession of a set of self-regulation techniques helps a novice teacher to solve a didactic (pedagogical) task, is essential in the formation and development of the basics of pedagogical mastery, It frees up time for creativity and contributes to the formation of an individual pedagogical style of the teacher.
The results of the study can be used by university teachers in the courses “Basics of pedagogical mastery”, “Introduction to pedagogical activity”, sections of the course “Pedagogics”, devoted to pedagogical technologies and techniques, by tutors and by students in the process of professional practice, within self-study and self-development. Theoretical substantiation of the application of techniques in the development of pedagogical technology, their typologization with consideration of the discipline taught, stages of development have prospects of consideration. The developed recommendations serve as a starting point for the analysis of the formation of subsequent stages of pedagogical mastery in terms of the emotional competence and psychological culture of the teacher.
Ognev A.S., Nikolaeva L.P., Likhacheva E.V.
USING THE ELEMENTS OF PROJECTIVE DRAWING TESTS IN OCULOMETRIC PSYCHODIAGNOSIS
Abstract. Using the presented descriptions of the complex of verbal and non-verbal reactions of the subjects to the visual stimuli shown to them, the article demonstrates the possibility of creating an effective test battery for working with eye-trackers from the materials of drawing projective methods. In this case, the effectiveness of testing is ensured by the compactness and efficiency of their use, the consistent and complementary nature of the information received, the automatic registration and processing of the gaze parameters recorded by the eye tracker of both an individual test subject and a group of subjects arbitrarily selected by the researcher.
Goncharova N.A., Nimirovskaya Yu. K., Zhuravleva T.L., Filipenko E. V.
TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE PECULIARITIES OF ETHNIC IDENTITY IN A MULTICULTURAL EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AT THE UNIVERSITY MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF RUSSIA
Abstract. The relevance of the topic of the article is due to the increased needs for understanding the learning process of foreign students within the framework of professional training in educational institutions of higher education of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The article presents an analysis of the results of the study of the peculiarities of ethnic identity of foreign students studying at the St. Petersburg University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. In the study, it was shown that the ethnic characteristics of foreign listeners in Africa and the CIS exist in the form of constantly manifesting personal qualities of national identity, national feelings, national interests and orientations, traditions. The article reveals the understanding that the educational process must be built with a focus on the ethnic component. The difficulties faced by applicants in teaching foreign students are noted.
MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS FOR PREVENTING STAFF TURNOVER IN DEPARTMENTAL SECURITY UNITS
Abstract. The complex, unstable, dynamic socio-economic situation in the world and in Russia creates conditions for increasing staff turnover at enterprises. This fully applies to departmental and non-departmental security units. The most important factor of staff turnover is the ratio of external and internal motivation of employees. The higher the motivation factor is evaluated by employees and the less satisfied it is with the organization, the higher the staff turnover rate. The strongest motivational factors for the professional activity of employees of security units are wages, an effective system of non-material incentives, the possibility of career growth and professional improvement, favorable working conditions, a healthy psychological climate in the unit. The first motivational factors are the most difficult to satisfy, but they can be compensated to a certain extent by other factors. Managers of security companies need to build flexible employee motivation systems that use the motivation mechanism and ensure coordination of external and internal motivation factors to prevent staff turnover.
Strelnikov S.S., Turov R.S.
INDEPENDENCE: SOCIETY’S DEMAND AND HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM’S RESPONSE
Abstract. The article analyzes the possibilities of studying independence from the standpoint of the response of the higher education system to the public request for its formation. It is postulated that the higher education system responds to the public demand for the formation of a number of soft skills, and independence is one of the competencies in demand in a changing world, as well as a part of personal capital. It has been determined that the psychological condition of independence is the subjectivity of the individual, associated with the understanding of the boundaries of one’s own psychological space and the possibilities of influencing it. The author comes to the conclusion that independence can be studied not only from the standpoint of the individual, but also from the standpoint of the formation of this property in the conditions of society. It is shown that independence can be understood in different ways depending on the research optics of sociological research: the understanding of the nature and determinants of independence is changing. The contradictory nature of the public demand for the formation of transforming agency is determined: on the one hand, society is interested in transformations and individuals who can carry them out, on the other hand, it tends to preserve established institutions and relations within them. The institute of higher education in modern conditions responds to the request for the formation of students’ independence formally, as a result of which the formed agency is not transformative, but adaptive. An illustration of this statement is the development of academic dishonesty practices, in particular, commissioning works. This contributes to the formation of specific competencies in the student to act as an independent agent in relations produced by institutional dysfunction. These circumstances explain the importance of studying the dysfunctions of institutions of higher education in relation to independence.
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF SOCIETY: STATE AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT
Abstract. This article reveals the relevance of the topic related to the need for the development of social psychology of society as an industry. It provides a conceptual framework that characterizes this phenomenon. At the same time, the article outlines the difficulties and controversial issues arising in this area. The article also substantiates the optimal model of modernization of modern society and analyzes the practice of reforming individual segments of the social sphere.
SECTION III. EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND SELF-REALIZATION OF THE SUBJECT OF LABOR AND LIFE STRATEGY
Galaganova S.G., Kravets P.S.
SUBJECTIVE SEMANTIC SPACE OF HUMAN IN CONDITIONS OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIETY
Abstract. The digital transformation of society creates an objective need to study changes in the categorical structure of individual consciousness under the influence of digital technologies. Analysis and reconstruction of not always outwardly manifested structures of subjective experience, expressed in personal systems of meanings and meanings, is a necessary condition for understanding the essence of the changes that the attitude and worldview of a person of the “digital era” undergoes. The article examines the transformation of the categorical-semantic structure of individual consciousness by building its operational model, which in psychology is called the subjective semantic space of a person. The essence and typological characteristics of this phenomenon are revealed, a step-by-step description of the algorithm for constructing a model of subjective semantic space using the semantic differential method is presented. Using the SPSS software package, the authors conducted a factor analysis of the subjective semantic space. As a result of the study and generalization of the systems of values obtained in the process of empirical research, links and variables influenced by digital technologies have been identified. The results of the study indicate the effectiveness of the use of mathematical modeling to study the dynamics of the subjective semantic space of a person in the context of the digital transformation of society.
Diomin A.N., Kireeva O.V.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND PERSONAL FLEXIBILITY IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF EMPLOYMENT
Abstract. The aim of the article is to examine the relationship between psychological well-being and indicators of personal flexibility among workers in different kinds of employment. The concepts of “personal flexibility at the labour sphere” and “psychological well-being at the labour sphere” are used and their definitions are given. The sample consisted of 310 individuals between 30 and 45 years of age and included those in full-time employment (n = 95) and those in a variety of precarious employment (n = 215), including: fixed-term (1–3 years) (n = 74), temporary (less than 1 year) (n = 74), casual, short-term (n = 67). The tools: “Personal flexibility at the labour sphere”, “Job insecurity measurement technique”, forced employment scale, career development barriers scale, life satisfaction scale. In general, personal flexibility at the labour sphere negatively correlates with all indicators of psychological disadvantage at the labour sphere, and positively correlates with indicators of general life satisfaction and job satisfaction. In the group of employees with casual employment, flexibility is weakly related to the indicators of psychological disadvantage at the labour sphere. This is probably due to the heterogeneity of this group, which includes freelancers, self-employed entrepreneur.
Zhikhareva L.V., Luchinkina A.I., Luchinkina I.S., Grebenyuk A.A., Yudeeva T.V.
FEATURES OF NETWORK AGGRESSION OF TEENAGERS
Abstract. The article raises the problem of identifying the general patterns of network aggression for the timely adoption of preventive measures to prevent it. The purpose of the article is to analyze the relationship between individual personal characteristics of Internet users and the forms of online aggression they choose. Research methods and materials. To identify the level of aggressiveness in real and virtual spaces – a methodology for studying aggressive and hostile reactions of Basa-Darki, a CYBA cyberaggression questionnaire adapted by A.A. Sharova, to identify the form of cyberaggression – the questionnaire “Attitude towards trolling” by I.S. Luchinkina, questionnaire “Tendency to bullying in the Internet space” by I.S. Luchinkina. The study involved 180 older adolescents aged 14-15 years old, studying in secondary schools in the city of Simferopol, the Republic of Crimea. Results of the study and their discussion. The study revealed significant correlations between individual indicators of aggression and the choice of forms of cyberbullying. It was revealed that more than 73% of teenagers show online aggression in various forms, but the most chosen are slandering and spreading rumors, as well as trolling appearance.
FAMILY-CAUSED FACTORS OF A PERSON’S FOCUS ON VOLUNTEER ACTIVITIES
Abstract. The study of the psychological nature of a person’s focus on volunteering involves revealing the factors that determine his desire and desire to provide disinterested assistance to others, to participate in the volunteer movement without external stimulation of specific mental activity. As one of these factors, the author considers the volunteers’ perception of their parents’ attitude towards them. The article presents the results of an empirical study performed using the following methods: “Parent-Child Interaction” (VRC) (I.M. Markovskaya), the questionnaire “Parental Behavior and Attitude towards Them” (Shafer in the adaptation of the Bekhterev Institute staff) on a sample of 248 student volunteers. For the study, four groups of volunteers aged 18 to 24 years were formed, characterized by the predominance of different types of orientation of their personality towards ongoing volunteer activities and participating in various volunteer projects. To determine the predominant type of orientation of the personality of the respondents to volunteer activities, the author’s questionnaire was used, according to which personality-oriented, object-oriented, civic-oriented and professionally-oriented orientations of the volunteer’s personality were singled out. As a result of the study, it was revealed that each type of orientation of the personality of volunteers to the activities they carry out is due to the peculiarities of their perception of the attitude of parents and the nature of child-parent relations in the parental family. The results of the study indicate the need to take into account the influence of family-related factors on the behavior and motives of volunteers when organizing their psychological support and psychological support.
Sukhinina K.V., Bonko T.I., Nitsina O.A., Kolesnikova A.Yu., Malevanny A.A.
ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS IN FIRST-YEAR GIRLS INCLUDED IN THE THIRD FUNCTIONAL HEALTH GROUP
Abstract. 125 people, girls studying at the Irkutsk State University, were examined. The average age of the surveyed was 17.8±0.8 years (M±σ). The survey was conducted in 2019, on the 1st and 2nd course 2 times a year (in autumn and spring). The girls were divided into control (39 people) and experimental groups (86 people). The experimental group consisted of girls with the following chronic diseases: vegetative vascular dystonia (VVD) – 20 people (17.8±0.8 years), myopia – 39 people (17.2±0.4 years), scoliosis – 27 people (17 .2±0.3 years). Research methods were used in the work: a functional test with a dosed physical load, an orthostatic test, a Stange test. The following indicators were studied: vital capacity of the lungs, respiratory rate. In the first year, all the examined girls showed a tendency to hypotension, while in the second year, normalization of blood pressure levels was established. When conducting an orthostatic test in girls in the control group and in patients diagnosed with myopia, scoliosis and VSD in the second year, a decrease in heart rate levels at rest was established, which indicates changes in the work of the cardiovascular system, namely: activation of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.